Acetyl-L-carnitine in diabetic polyneuropathy

Abstract Source: CNS drugs. 2007;21 Suppl 1:13-23; discussion 45-6. PMID: 17696589
Abstract Author(s): Anders A F Sima

Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is the most common late complication of diabetes mellitus. The underlying pathogenesis is multifaceted, with partly interrelated mechanisms that display a dynamic course. The mechanisms underlying DPN in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus show overlaps or may differ. The differences are mainly due to insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes which exacerbates the abnormalities caused by hyperglycaemia.Experimental DPN in rat models have identified early metabolic abnormalities with consequences for nerve conduction velocities and endoneurial blood flow. When corrected, the early functional deficits are usually normalised. On the other hand, if not corrected, they lead to abnormalities in lipid peroxidation and expression of neurotrophic factors which in turn result in axonal, nodal and paranodal degenerative changes with worsening of nerve function. As the structural changes progress, they become increasingly less amendable to metabolic interventions.In the past several years, experimental drugs–such as aldose reductase inhibitors, antioxidants and protein kinase C inhibitors–have undergone clinical trials, with disappointing outcomes. These drugs, targeting a single underlying pathogenetic factor, have in most cases been initiated at the advanced stage of DPN. In contrast, substitution of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) or C-peptide in type 1 DPN target a multitude of underlying mechanisms and are therefore more likely to be effective on a broader spectrum of the underlying pathogenesis.Clinical trials utilising ALC have shown beneficial effects on nerve conduction slowing, neuropathic pain, axonal degenerative changes and nerve fibre regeneration, despite relatively late initiation in the natural history of DPN. Owing to the good safety profile of ALC, early initiation of ALC therapy would be justified, with potentially greater benefits.

Meditation in health and Disease:

Meditation implies relaxation, both physical and mental, it brings excellent health and can alleviate many type of diseases. Meditation acts as a holistic or whole treatment for diseases. Anyone can practice meditation. It’s simple and inexpensive, and it doesn’t require any special equipment. And you can practice meditation wherever you are — whether you’re out for a walk, riding the bus, waiting at the doctor’s office or even in the middle of a difficult business meeting.

Physiological benefits of Meditation;

Meditation is most powerful way of controlling physiological processes and also controlling physiological reactions to psychological events.

1.      Slow down the metabolism:

One of the profound changes that take place in the body during meditation is the slowing down of metabolism. There is a sharp reduction in oxygen consumption to about 10-20% leading to a deep state of relaxation, even more effective than a night of sleep. After a few minutes of focused meditation and deep breathing, you will enter a state of profound relaxation, slowing your heart beat, breath, and muscle contractions. In these state of deep relaxation, our body is able to rest from its normal activity to repair cells and tissues, making it healthier.


2.Meditation decreases your levels of cortisol.

Cortisol is the one hormone you want less amounts of and meditation is proven to significantly decrease this harmful hormone. Higher and more prolonged levels of Cortisol, an age accelerating hormone, in the bloodstream has been found to have effects such as decreased bone density, elevated blood pressure, suppressed thyroid function, weakened cognitive performance, chronic stress, blood sugar imbalances such as hyperglycemia, decrease in muscle tissue, lowered immunity and inflammatory responses in the body, increased abdominal fat (which is related to many more health problems than fat deposited in other areas of the body), heart attacks, strokes, increased levels of “bad” cholesterol (LDL) and decreased levels of “good” cholesterol (HDL), which lead to other health problems. Too much cortisol is very damaging to your body and meditation can help reduce the risk of its many harmful effects.

“Yoga therapy in Prevention and Rehabilitation of Coronary Artery Diseases”

Coronary artery disease (CAD; also atherosclerotic heart disease) is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients.


General considerations

Almost 2.6 million Indians are predicted to die due to coronary artery disease, which constitutes 54.1% of all coronary vascular deaths in India by 2020. Additionally, CAD in Indians has been shown to occur prematurely, that is, at least a decade or two earlier than their counterparts in western countries.CAD ranks as the third most common cause of death throughout the world. In light of the fact that Coronary artery disease is largely a disease of diet and lifestyle, it appears that many of these deaths could be significantly delayed through stress management, healthful diet and lifestyle.


Risk factors

Reducing the risk for heart disease involves reducing, and when possible eliminating, various risk factors associated with premature death due to heart diseases.

The various risk factors are,

• Increased cellular inflammation and endothelial damage

• Elevated blood cholesterol levels

• High blood pressure

• Smoking

• Diabetes

• Physical inactivity

• Low antioxidant status

• Low levels of essential fatty acids

• Low levels of magnesium and potassium

Understanding atherosclerosis

The lesions of atherosclerosis are initiated by above factors and results in injury to the cells lining the inside of the artery, the arterial endothelium, and then progressed in to full atherosclerosis plaques.


Yoga therapy and coronary artery diseases


Weight management– Regular practice of specific yoga practices improves the cardio respiratory fitness and body metabolism along with reduction in abdominal obesity. It also encourages a healthy reconnection to food, as well as the development of physical self-empowerment, through cultivating present-moment awareness. Overall reduction in the quantity of food consumed, decreased eating speed, and an improvement in food choices.

High cholesterol-Yogic practices influenced the lipid profile and body fat composition in patients of coronary artery by reducing the Serum total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels and elevating the healthy HDL cholesterol.

Stress Management-Certain yogic practices reduces the adrenal stress hormones such as the adrenalin, noradrenalin and balances cortisol and also reduces the pituitary hormone vasopressin there by reduces the stress induced vasoconstriction. Increased levels of plasma melatonin in turn results improved sense of wellbeing.

Blood pressure-Yogic practices stabilizes the autonomic nervous system equilibrium, with a tendency toward parasympathetic nervous system dominance rather than the usual stress-induced sympathetic nervous system dominance there by reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, pulse rate, respiratory rate etc.

Diabetics and pre diabetic states can be twice risky for development of CAD. Practice of yoga can improves insulin production and reducing the sympathetic influenced glucagon production. As well as reducing insulin resistance along with stress reduction and cholesterol control and improved digestive and absorptive ability.

Endothelial dysfunction is an important indicator of atherosclerosis because as the disease and plaque build-up progresses, the blood vessels become less supple and less able to constrict and expand. Specific yoga and meditation practices improve the endothelial vasodilatation by 69 % as a study conducted by Bridgeport Hospital and Yale University, New Haven within just 6 weeks.

Oxidative stress and free radical damage which is another import and hall mark in CAD and  regular practice of yoga can maintain and even  improve total antioxidant status of the body, by increasing plasma vitamin E,  glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity and reducing  the malonaldehyde (MDA) levels in plasma and thereby reducing the Lipid peroxidation.

Cellular Inflammation, yogic practices optimizes the stress levels thereby balancing the Cortisol and reducing the inflammatory markers such as cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF- alpha, C reactive proteins, Leptin levels etc  and increase adiponectin levels which is anti inflammatory and contributes to the increase in the Insulin sensitivity.

For more details contact any qualified Naturopathic Medical doctors


Benefits of Sun light and Vit D

Avoiding the harsher elements of direct sunlight is not only wise but is necessary, but not getting enough direct sunlight on our skin, is even more problematic. So, it is important to have healthy sun exposure without getting burnt or promoting sun damage.

According to recent studies, not getting enough direct sunlight increases our chances of cancer by at least 70%? Why? Because our bodies need natural sunlight to synthesize adequate amounts of vitamin D in order to keep our bones strong and healthy, as well as support the immune system.

What is Vitamin D?
Vitamin D, in the form of calciferol (vitamin D3) is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is found in food, but also can be made in your body after exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun. The liver and kidneys help convert vitamin D to its active hormone form known as calcitriol. Vitamin D in its active pro-hormone form of calcitriol is important in determining how our cells express themselves and is vital in the production of various hormones and neurotransmitters (messengers in the brain).

What does the latest research on Vitamin D offer us?

Exciting new research conducted at the Creighton University School of Medicine in Nebraska has revealed that supplementing with vitamin D and calcium can reduce your risk of cancer by at least 60 percent. This includes breast cancer, colon cancer, skin cancer and other forms of cancer. This research provides strong new evidence that vitamin D is the single most effective medicine against cancer, far outpacing the benefits of any cancer drug known to modern science.

The bottom line is that if you take good-quality calcium and get adequate natural sunlight exposure or supplement with a good source of vitamin D (such as high quality cod liver oil), you could easily improve on the 60 percent reductions recorded in this study…

Deficiency or insufficiency of natural sunlight and vitamin D has been associated with the following conditions:

*Adrenal insufficiency
* Alzheimer’s
* allergies
* autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis
* cancers of the colon, breast, skin and prostate
* depression, seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
* diabetes, Type 1 and 2* PMS
* gluten intolerance, lectin intolerance
* heart disease, hypertension,*Syndrome X
* infertility, sexual dysfunction
* learning and behavior disorders
* misaligned teeth and cavities
* obesity
* osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteomalacia (adult rickets)
* Parkinson’s
* psoriasis

In conclusion of the safest way of ensuring adequate vitamin D, getting at least some early morning or evening direct sunlight is very beneficial for all of us. The best sun exposure during summer would be 10 minutes approximately for early morning sun before 9 am or late afternoon after 5 pm.

Kindly contact Medical Park for getting checked your Vit D levels and more information on prevention and treatment of lifestyle disorders which can be related to the Sun light hormone deficiency….

Stress and its management for weight loss

Most people admit that when they’re under stress, healthy eating habits can be difficult to maintain. Whether eating to fill an emotional need or grabbing fast food simply because there’s no time to prepare something healthy, a stressed-out lifestyle is rarely a healthy one. But weight gain when under stress may also be at least partly due to the body’s system of hormonal checks and balances, which can actually promote weight gain when you’re stressed out, according to some researchers.

Cortisol is a critical hormone with many actions in the body. Normally, cortisol is secreted by the adrenal glands in a pattern called a diurnal variation, meaning that levels of cortisol in the blood stream vary depending upon the time of day (normally, cortisol levels are highest in the early morning and lowest around midnight). Cortisol is important for the maintenance of blood pressure as well as the provision of energy for the body. Cortisol stimulates fat and carbohydrate metabolism for fast energy, and stimulates insulin release and maintenance of blood sugar levels. The end result of these actions can be an increase in appetite.

Cortisol has been termed the “stress hormone” because excess cortisol is secreted during times of physical or psychological stress, and the normal pattern of cortisol secretion can be altered. This disruption of cortisol secretion may not only promote weight gain, but it can also affect where you put on the weight. Some studies have shown that stress and elevated cortisol tend to cause fat deposition in the abdominal area rather than in the hips. This fat deposition has been referred to as “toxic fat” since abdominal fat deposition is strongly correlated with the development of cardiovascular disease including heart attacks and strokes.

Fortunately, there are things you can do to reverse the pattern of weight gain.

Attitude: A person’s attitude can influence whether or not a situation or emotion is stressful. A person with a negative attitude will often report more stress than would someone with a positive attitude. The solution is,

  • Find the positive in situations, and don’t dwell on the negative.
  • Plan fun activities.
  • Take regular breaks

Relaxation: People with no outside interests, hobbies, or other ways to relax may be less able to handle stressful situations.

  • Learn about and try using relaxation techniques, such as guided imagery, listening to music, or practicing yoga or meditation. With some practice, these techniques should work for you.
  • Listen to your body when it tells you to slow down or take a break.
  • Make sure to get enough sleep. Good sleep habits are one of the best ways to manage stress.
  • Take time for personal interests and hobbies.
  • Dr.M

Environmental illness- 21st century health challenge

The interaction between humans and chemical compounds may be described as a love –hate relationship. Our environment is currently flooded with chemicals that contaminate our air, our water, our food and finally our body. The environmental chemicals which cause the most problems are pesticides, solvents, pharmaceutical compounds, herbicides, insecticides, heavy metals and plastics. These solvents and major pesticide are often toxic to three major body systems include neuronal, immune and endocrine systems. These compounds can also cause a variety of dermatological, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, musculoskeletal, and cardiological problems.

Environmental toxic load:

There are hundreds of studies about the impact of environmental toxins on human health and diseases. National adipose tissue survey done in United States estimated around 400-800 environmental chemicals stored in their bodies; especially in the adipose tissues around the viscera and abdominal region which can in turn impact the body mechanisms.

Sources of environmental toxins: Some of the known chemicals are;

1. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls): PCBs belong to a broad family of man-made organic chemicals known as chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Risks: PCBs have been demonstrated to cause cancer, as well as a variety of other adverse health effects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system, and endocrine system. Also can cause impaired fetal brain development.

Major Source: Farm-raised salmon and other contaminated fish sources, old fluorescent lamps in the office or at home

2. Pesticides: According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 60 per cent of herbicides, 90 per cent of fungicides and 30 per cent of insecticides are known to be carcinogenic

Risks: Cancer, Parkinson’s disease, miscarriage, nerve damage, birth defects, blocking the absorption of food nutrients.

Major Sources: Food (fruits, vegetables and commercially raised meats), bug sprays.

3. Mould and other Fungal Toxins: One in three people have had an allergic reaction to mould. Mycotoxins (fungal toxins) can cause a range of health problems with exposure to only a small amount.

Risks: Cancer, heart disease, asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes.

Major Sources: Contaminated buildings, food like peanuts, wheat, corn and alcoholic beverages.

4. Phthalates: These chemicals are used to lengthen the life of fragrances and soften plastics.

Risks: Endocrine system damage (phthalates chemically mimic hormones and are particularly dangerous to children).

Major Sources: Plastic wrap, plastic bottles, plastic food storage containers. All of these can leach phthalates into our food.

5. Bisphenol A: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound   used to make polycarbonate polymers and epoxy resins, along with other materials used to make plastics.

Risks: Bisphenol A is an endocrine disruptor which can mimic estrogen and may further leads to cancers, obesity, neurological disorders, Disruption of the dopaminergic system, thyroid dysfunctions etc

Major sources: primary sources of BPA in humans are from packet food, plastic containers, water bottles etc

6. VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds): are a large group of carbon-based chemicals that easily evaporate at room temperature. VOCs tend to be higher (two to five times) in indoor air than outdoor air, likely because they are present in so many household products.

Risks: Cancer, eye and respiratory tract irritation, headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, and memory impairment.

Major Sources: Drinking water, carpet, paints, deodorants, cleaning fluids, varnishes, cosmetics, dry cleaned clothing, moth repellants, air fresheners.

7. Dioxins: Chemical compounds formed as a result of combustion processes such as commercial or municipal waste incineration and from burning fuels (like wood, coal or oil).

Risks: Cancer, reproductive and developmental disorders, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones, chloracne (a severe skin disease with acne-like lesions), skin rashes, skin discoloration, excessive body hair, mild liver damage.

Major Sources: Animal fats: Over 95 per cent of exposure comes from eating commercial animal fats. Very low levels are found in plants, water and air.

8. Asbestos: This insulating material was widely used. Problems arise when the material becomes old and crumbly, releasing fibers into the air.

Risks: Cancer, scarring of the lung tissue

Major Sources: Insulation on floors, ceilings, water pipes and heating ducts from the 1950s to 1970s.

9. Heavy Metals: Metals like arsenic, mercury, lead, aluminum and cadmium, which are prevalent in many areas of our environment, can accumulate in soft tissues of the body.

Risks: Cancer, neurological disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, foggy head, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, decreased production of red and white blood cells, abnormal heart rhythm, damage to blood vessels.

Major Sources: Drinking water, fish, vaccines, pesticides, preserved wood, antiperspirant, building materials, dental amalgams, chlorine plants.

10. Chlorine: This highly toxic, yellow-green gas is one of the most heavily used chemical agents.

Risks: Sore throat, coughing, eye and skin irritation, rapid breathing, narrowing of the bronchi, wheezing, blue coloring of the skin, accumulation of fluid in the lungs, pain in the lung region, severe eye and skin burns, lung collapse, reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS).

Major Sources: Household cleaners, drinking water, air when living near an industry (such as a paper plant) that uses chlorine in industrial processes.

Health effects of environmental toxins;

Immunotoxicity: Environmental chemicals have a wide range of damaging effects on the function of the immune system. These range from decreased cell-mediated immunity to increased sensitivity (allergy) and increased autoimmunity. Some of the conditions include Coeliac diseasediabetes mellitus type 1 (IDDM), Sarcoidosissystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren’s syndrome, Hashimoto’s thyroiditisGraves’ diseaseidiopathic thrombocytopenic purpuraAddison’s Diseaserheumatoid arthritis (RA), allergies etc

Neurotoxicity: The nervous system is a particularly sensitive target for toxic agents. Most of the major classes of pesticides kill pests by attacking their nervous system. The organochlorine compounds (OCCs) affect the nerve by disrupting the ion flow along the axon. The organophosphate pesticides (OPs), which came out of nerve gas research and carbamates, affect acetyl cholinesterase, resulting in excessive acetylcholine levels in the synapses. Solvents, some of which were originally used as anesthetics, dampen the propagation and transmission of electrical impulses along the nerve axons. All of these agents produce various forms of toxic encephalopathy as neuronopathies, axonopathies, myelinopathies or vasculopathies etc

Endocrinotoxicity: Synthetic chemicals can disturb the normal activity of estrogens, androgens, insulin, thyroid, and other hormones. They do this by binding to hormone receptors; this activates the hormones and sets off a chain of events as if the hormone itself were binding to the receptor. By binding and occupying the receptor, these toxic chemicals may block normal hormonal activity, or interfere with proteins that regulate the activity of hormones. The effects of these toxic chemicals may be associated with the development of obesity, diabetics, hypertension, breast cancer, fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, chronic fatigue, hypothyroidism, and fibromyalgia, among other diseases.

The most common hormone-disrupting compounds are polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol-A, phthalates, pesticides, aliphatic compounds, Cadmium, CCl4, Dioxins, mirex, lead, organochlorine compounds (OCCs) and formaldehyde. All have been shown to cause adverse health effects.

The most common symptoms of toxic damage to the endocrine system are;

  • Sleep disturbances or changes in energy level or mood
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Alterations in weight, appetite and bowel function
  • Change in sexual interest and in females any menstrual change
  • Changes in temperature perception, sweating, or flushing
  • Alteration of hair growth and skin texture

The way out: a complete lifestyle change with further exposure avoidance. Improve the natural detoxification processes by organic supplements and Natural Medicine. More on this contact @